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We are proud to offer HCG in a 10ml vial with 5,000iu per vial.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone that plays a vital role in reproduction and has been utilized in various medical applications. Extensive research has been conducted to understand its mechanism of action, both in vitro and in vivo. This article aims to delve into the intricate workings of HCG, exploring its therapeutic potential and shedding light on the experimental studies conducted to unravel its biological effects [1].

Structure and Properties of HCG

HCG is a glycoprotein hormone that consists of two subunits: the alpha subunit, which is structurally similar to other glycoprotein hormones (e.g., follicle-stimulating hormone), and the unique beta subunit, which confers specificity to HCG. HCG is produced by the placenta during pregnancy, and its structure allows for efficient binding to specific receptors.

Mechanism of Action

HCG exerts its effects by interacting with specific receptors and modulating signaling pathways. It primarily acts by mimicking the activity of luteinizing hormone (LH), another gonadotropin hormone. Here are the key mechanisms through which HCG operates [2]:

a. Gonadal Stimulation

HCG binds to LH receptors in the gonads, including the testes in males and the ovaries in females. This binding triggers a cascade of events that leads to the production of sex hormones, such as testosterone in males and progesterone in females. HCG stimulates the production and release of these hormones, contributing to reproductive functions and fertility.

b. Corpus Luteum Support

In females, HCG plays a crucial role in maintaining the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure formed after ovulation. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which is essential for supporting early pregnancy. HCG sustains the corpus luteum, ensuring the continued production of progesterone until the placenta can take over hormone production [3].

c. Steroidogenesis

HCG stimulates the production of steroid hormones in the gonads. In males, it stimulates Leydig cells in the testes to produce testosterone. In females, HCG induces the production of progesterone by the corpus luteum. These steroid hormones are essential for reproductive functions and play a vital role in various physiological processes.

In Vitro Studies

In vitro studies have provided valuable insights into the cellular mechanisms of HCG. Researchers have utilized cell cultures to investigate its effects on various cell types, including gonadal cells and placental cells. These studies have highlighted the following findings:

a. Gonadal Cell Stimulation

In vitro studies have shown that HCG activates signaling pathways in gonadal cells, leading to increased production of sex hormones. It promotes the synthesis of testosterone in Leydig cells of the testes and progesterone in luteal cells of the ovaries. These effects contribute to the regulation of reproductive functions.

b. Placental Cell Functions

HCG has also been studied in placental cells to understand its role in supporting pregnancy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that HCG promotes trophoblast cell invasion, angiogenesis, and the production of other hormones necessary for successful implantation and placental development [4].

In Vivo Studies

In vivo studies have provided further evidence of HCG’s therapeutic effects. These studies have been conducted in animal models, including rodents and non-human primates. Here are some key findings from in vivo studies:

a. Fertility and Reproductive Functions

Animal studies have shown that HCG administration improves fertility and reproductive functions. In males, it increases sperm production and improves sperm quality. In females, it promotes ovulation and supports corpus luteum function, ensuring adequate hormone production for successful pregnancy.

b. Testosterone Replacement

HCG has been investigated as an alternative to testosterone replacement therapy in males with hypogonadism. Animal studies have shown that HCG administration can stimulate endogenous testosterone production, leading to increased testosterone levels and improved reproductive functions.

c. Ovarian Stimulation

HCG is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). Animal studies have demonstrated that HCG administration can induce ovulation and enhance follicular development, improving the success rates of fertility treatments.

d. Cryptorchidism Treatment

Cryptorchidism, the failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum, is a condition that can affect male fertility. Animal studies have suggested that HCG administration may promote testicular descent and improve fertility outcomes in individuals with cryptorchidism [5].

Clinical Applications and Future Perspectives

HCG has various clinical applications in the field of reproductive medicine. It is commonly used for inducing ovulation, supporting corpus luteum function, and improving fertility outcomes. HCG is also utilized in testosterone replacement therapy and in the treatment of certain reproductive disorders. However, further research is still needed to optimize its dosing, evaluate long-term safety, and explore potential applications beyond reproductive medicine.


HCG, through its interactions with specific receptors and modulation of signaling pathways, plays a critical role in reproductive functions and fertility. In vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated its ability to stimulate gonadal cells, support corpus luteum function, and regulate hormone production. These findings provide a foundation for the clinical applications of HCG in assisted reproductive technologies, testosterone replacement therapy, and the treatment of certain reproductive disorders. As research continues, HCG may continue to evolve as a valuable tool in reproductive medicine, improving fertility outcomes and reproductive health in both males and females.

WARNING This product is intended for research purposes only. The research chemical designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law.

  1. Bahl OP. Human chorionic gonadotropin, its receptor and mechanism of action. Fed Proc. 1977;36(8):2119-2127.
  2. Rao CV. Therapeutic Potential of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Against Painful Bladder Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis. Reprod Sci. 2016;23(11):1451-1458. doi:10.1177/1933719116639139
  3. Cunha TO, Statz LR, Domingues RR, Andrade JPN, Wiltbank MC, Martins JPN. Accessory corpus luteum induced by human chorionic gonadotropin on day 7 or days 7 and 13 of the estrous cycle affected follicular and luteal dynamics and luteolysis in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2022;105(3):2631-2650. doi:10.3168/jds.2021-20619
  4. Turco MY, Gardner L, Kay RG, et al. Trophoblast organoids as a model for maternal-fetal interactions during human placentation. Nature. 2018;564(7735):263-267. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0753-3
  5. Wei Y, Wang Y, Tang X, et al. Efficacy and safety of human chorionic gonadotropin for treatment of cryptorchidism: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J Paediatr Child Health. 2018;54(8):900-906. doi:10.1111/jpc.13920
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