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Delta-sleep-inducing peptide

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Delta-sleep-inducing peptide
Symbol DSIP
UniProt P01158

Delta-sleep-inducing peptide, abbreviated DSIP, is a neuropeptide that when infused into the mesodiencephalic ventricle of recipient rabbits induces spindle and delta EEG activity and reduced motor activities.[1]

Its aminoacid sequence is TrpAlaGly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu. However, the gene is unknown[citation needed], raising serious questions regarding the actual existence of this peptide in nature.


Delta-sleep-inducing peptide was first discovered in 1974 by the Swiss Schoenenberger-Monnier group who isolated it from the cerebral venous blood of rabbits in an induced state of sleep. It was primarily believed to be involved in sleep regulation due to its apparent ability to induce slow-wave sleep in rabbits, but studies on the subject have been contradictory.[2]

DSIP-like material has been found in human breast milk.[3]

Structure and interactions[edit]

DSIP is an amphiphilic peptide of molecular weight 850 daltons with the amino acid motif:

It has been found in both free and bound forms in the hypothalamuslimbic system and pituitary as well as various peripheral organs, tissues and body fluids.[5] In the pituitary it co-localises with many peptide and non-peptide mediators such as corticotropin-like intermediate peptide (CLIP), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH). It is abundant in the gut secretory cells and in the pancreas where it co-localises with glucagon.[4]

In the brain its action may be mediated by NMDA receptors.[6] In another study delta-sleep-inducing peptide stimulated acetyltransferase activity through α1 receptors in rats.[7] It is unknown where DSIP is synthesized.

In vitro it has been found to have a low molecular stability with a half life of only 15 minutes due to the action of a specific aminopeptidase-like enzyme.[8] It has been suggested that in the body it complexes with carrier proteins to prevent degradation, or exists as a component of a large precursor molecule,[9] but as yet no structure or gene has been found for this precursor.

Evidence supports the current belief that it is regulated by glucocorticoids.[10]

Gimble et al. suggest that DSIP interacts with components of the MAPK cascade and is homologous to glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ).[11] GILZ can be induced by Dexamethasone. It prevents Raf-1 activation, which inhibits phosphorylation and activation of ERK.[12]


Many roles for DSIP have been suggested following research carried out using peptide analogues with a greater molecular stability[13] and through measuring DSIP-like immunological (DSIP-LI) response by injecting DSIP antiserum and antibodies.[14]

Roles in endocrine regulation[edit]

Roles in physiological processes[edit]

Roles in disease and medicine[edit]

  • It has been found to have anticarcinogenic properties. In a study on mice, injecting a preparation of DSIP over the mice’s lifetime decreased total spontaneous tumor incidence 2.6-fold.[30]
  • The same study found it to also have geroprotective effects: it slowed down the age-related switching-off of oestrous function; it decreased by 22.6% the frequency of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and it increased by 24.1% maximum life span in comparison with the control group.
  • Levels of DSIP may be significant in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). In several studies, levels of DSIP in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are significantly deviated from the norm in patients with MDD, though there are contradictions as to whether levels are higher or lower than healthy control patients.[10][31][32]
  • Studies have demonstrated a direct link between GILZ expression (homologous to DSIP) and adipogenesis which has links to obesity and metabolic syndrome.[33]
  • In studies on rats with metaphit-induced epilepsy DSIP acted as an anticonvulsant, significantly decreasing the incidence and duration of fits suggesting DSIP as a potential treatment for epilepsy.[34][35]
  • DSIP has been found to have an analgesic effect. In studies on mice it was found to have a potent antinociceptive effect when administered intracerebroventricularly or intracisternally (see: Route of administration).[36]
  • Due to its possible effects on sleep and nociception, trials have been carried out to determine whether DSIP can be used as an anaesthetic. One such study found that administration of DSIP to humans as an adjunct to isoflurane anaesthesia actually increased the heart rate and reduced the depth of anaesthesia instead of deepening it as expected.[37]
  • Low plasma concentrations of DSIP have been found in patients with Cushing’s syndrome.[38]
  • In Alzheimer’s patients levels of DSIP have been found to be slightly elevated, though this is unlikely to be causal.[39]
  • A preparation of DSIP, Deltaran, has been used to correct central nervous system function in children after antiblastomic therapy. Ten children aged 3–16 years were given a ten-day course of Deltaran and their bioelectric activity recorded. It was found that the chemotherapy-induced impairment in the bioelectrical activity of 9 out of the 10 children was reduced by administration of DSIP.[40]
  • DSIP can act antagonistically on opiate receptors to significantly inhibit the development of opioid and alcohol dependence and is currently being used in clinical trials to treat withdrawal syndrome.[41][42] In one such trial it was reported that in 97% of opiate-dependent and 87% of alcohol-dependent patients the symptoms were alleviated by DSIP administration.[43]
  • In some studies administration of DSIP has alleviated narcolepsy and normalized disturbed sleeping patterns.[44][45]

Safety and possible side-effects of long-term DSIP use haven’t been established in clinical research studies.


  1. ^ Monnier M, Dudler L, Gächter R, Maier PF, Tobler HJ, Schoenenberger GA (April 1977). “The delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP). Comparative properties of the original and synthetic nonapeptide”. Experientia33 (4): 548–52. doi:10.1007/BF01922266PMID 862769.
  2. ^ Schoenenberger GA, Maier PF, Tobler HJ, Monnier M (1977). “A naturally occurring delta-EEG enhancing nonapeptide in rabbits”. European Journal of Physiology369 (2): 99–109. doi:10.1007/BF00591565PMID 560681.
  3. ^ Graf MV, Hunter CA, Kastin AJ (1984). “Presence of Delta-Sleep-Inducing Peptide-Like Material in Human Milk”Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism59 (1): 127–32. doi:10.1210/jcem-59-1-127PMID 6547144.
  4. Jump up to:a b Kovalzon VM, Strekalova TV (2006). “Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): a still unresolved riddle”. Journal of Neurochemistry97 (2): 303–309. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03693.xPMID 16539679.
  5. ^ Charnay Y, Bouras C, Vallet PG, Golaz J, Guntern R, Constantinidis J (1989). “Immunohistochemical distribution of delta sleep inducing peptide in the rabbit brain and hypophysis”. Neuroendocrinology49 (2): 169–175. doi:10.1159/000125110PMID 2657475.
  6. ^ Sudakova KV, Umriukhina PE, Rayevskyb KS (2004). “Delta-sleep inducing peptide and neuronal activity after glutamate microiontophoresis: the role of NMDA-receptors”. Pathophysiology11 (2): 81–86. doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2004.03.003PMID 15364118.
  7. ^ Graf MV, Schoenenberger GA (1987). “Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide Modulates the Stimulation of Rat Pineal N-Acetyltransferase Activity by Involving the α1-Adrenergic Receptor”. Journal of Neurochemistry48 (4): 1252–1257. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1987.tb05654.xPMID 3029331.
  8. Jump up to:a b c Schoenenberger GA (1984). “Characterization, properties and multivariate functions of Delta-Sleep Inducing Peptide (DSIP)”. European Neurology23 (5): 321–345. doi:10.1159/000115711PMID 6548966.
  9. ^ Inoué S, Borbely AA (1985). Endogenous Sleep Substances And Sleep Regulation: Proceedings of the Taniguchi Symposia on Brain Sciences. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-6764-058-9.
  10. Jump up to:a b Westrin A, Ekman R, Traskman-Bendz L (1998). “High Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide-Like Immunoreactivity in Plasma in Suicidal Patients with Major Depressive Disorder”. Biological Psychiatry43 (10): 734–739. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(97)00254-0PMID 9606527.
  11. ^ Gimble JM, Ptitsyn AA, Goh BC, Hebert T, Yu G, Wu X, Zvonic S, Shi XM, Floyd ZE (2009). “Delta sleep-inducing peptide and glucocorticoidinduced leucine zipper: potential links between circadian mechanisms and obesity?”. Obesity Reviews10: 46–51. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00661.xPMID 19849801.
  12. Jump up to:a b Gupta V, Awasthi N, Wagner BJ (2007). “Specific Activation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor and Modulation of Signal Transduction Pathways in Human Lens Epithelial Cells”Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science48 (4): 1724–1734. doi:10.1167/iovs.06-0889PMC 2814520PMID 17389505.
  13. ^ synthesized by V. N. Kalikhevich and S. I. Churkina, University Chemical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and I. I. Mikhaleva and I. A. Prudchenko, Institute of Bio-organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
  14. ^ Charnay Y, Golaz J, Vallet PG, Bouras C (1992). “Production and immunohistochemical application of monoclonal antibodies against delta sleep-inducing peptide”. J Chem Neuroanat5 (6): 503–9. doi:10.1016/0891-0618(92)90005-BPMID 1476667.
  15. ^ Iyer KS, McCann SM (1987). “Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) stimulates the release of LH but not FSH via a hypothalamic site of action in the rat”. Brain Research Bulletin19 (5): 535–538. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(87)90069-4PMID 3121137.
  16. ^ Koval’zon VM (1994). “[DSIP: the sleep peptide or an unknown hypothalamic hormone?]”. Zh. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. (in Russian). 30 (2): 310–9. PMID 7817664.Kovalzon VM (1994). “DSIP: a sleep peptide or unknown hypothalamic hormone?”. J. Evol. Biochem. Physiol30: 195–199.
  17. ^ Kitayama I, Kawguchi S, Murase S, Otani M, Takayama M, Nakamura T, Komoiri T, Nomura N, Natotani N, Fuse K (1992). “Noradrenergic and neuroendocrine function in chronic walking stress-induced model of depression in rats”. In Kvetňanský R, McCarty R, Axelrod J (eds.). Stress: Neuroendocrine and Molecular Approaches. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 59–72. ISBN 978-2-88124-506-0.
  18. ^ Sudakova KV, Coghlan JP, Kotov AV, Salieva RM, Polyntsev YV, Koplik EV (1995). “Delta-sleep inducing peptide sequels in mechanisms of resistance to emotional stress”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences771: 240–251. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1995.tb44685.xPMID 8597403.
  19. Jump up to:a b Khvatova EM, Samartzev VN, Zagoskin PP, Prudchenko IA, Mikhaleva II (2003). “Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP): effect on respiration activity in rat brain mitochondria and stress protective potency under experimental hypoxia”. Peptides24 (2): 307–311. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(03)00040-8PMID 12668217.
  20. ^ Pollard BJ, Pomfrett CJ (2001). “Delta sleep-inducing peptide”. Eur. J. Anaesthesiol18 (7): 419–422. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2346.2001.00917.xPMID 11437870.
  21. ^ Yehuda S, Kastin AJ, Coy DH (1980). “Thermoragulatory and locomotor effects of DSIP: paradoxical interaction with d-amphetamine”. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav13 (6): 895–900. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(80)90225-7PMID 6894196.
  22. ^ Yehuda S, Mostofsky DI (1984). “Modification of the hypothermic circadian cycles induced by DSIP and melatonin in pinealectomized and hypophysectomised rats”. Peptides5 (3): 495–497. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(84)90076-7PMID 6548024.
  23. ^ Yehuda S, Carasso RL (February 1988). “DSIP–a tool for investigating the sleep onset mechanism: a review”. Int. J. Neurosci38 (3–4): 345–53. doi:10.3109/00207458808990695PMID 3286557.
  24. ^ Iyer KS, Marks GA, Kastin AJ, McCann SM (1988). “Evidence for a role of delta sleep-inducing peptide in slow-wave sleep and sleep-related growth hormone release in the rat”Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A85 (10): 3653–3656. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.10.3653PMC 280272PMID 3368469.
  25. ^ Susić V, Masirević G, Totić S (1987). “The effects of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) on wakefulness and sleep patterns in the cat”. Brain Research414 (2): 262–70. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(87)90006-0PMID 3620931.
  26. ^ Seifritz E, Muller M, Schonenberger G, Trachsel L, Hemmeter U, Hatzinger M, Ernst A, Moore P, Holsboer-Trachsler E (1995). “Human plasma DSIP decreases at the initiation of sleep at different circadian times”. Peptides16(8): 1475–1481. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(95)02027-6PMID 8745061.
  27. ^ Steiger A, Holsboer F (1997). “Neuropeptides and human sleep”. Sleep20(11): 1038–1052. PMID 9456470.
  28. ^ Nakagaki K, Ebihara S, Usui S, Honda Y, Takahashi Y, Kato N (1986). “Effects of intraventricular injection of anti-DSIP serum on sleep in rats”. Yakubutsu Seishin Kodo (Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology)6: 259–65.
  29. ^ Kovalzon VM (2001). “Sleep-Inducing Properties of DSIP Analogs: Structural and Functional Relationships”. Biology Bulletin28 (4): 394–400. doi:10.1023/A:1016679208936.
  30. ^ Popovich IG, Voitenkov BO, Anisimov VN, Ivanov VT, Mikhaleva II, Zabezhinski MA, Alimova IN, Baturin DA, Zavarzina NY, Rosenfeld SV, Semenchenko AV, Yashin AI (2003). “Effect of delta-sleep inducing peptide-containing preparation Deltaran on biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumor incidence in female SHR mice”. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development124 (6): 721–731. doi:10.1016/S0047-6374(03)00082-4PMID 12782416.
  31. ^ Walleus H, Widerlöv E, Ekman R (1985). “Decreased concentrations of delta-sleep inducing peptide in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from depressed patients”. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry39: 63–67. doi:10.3109/08039488509101959.
  32. ^ Bjartell A, Ekman R, Sundler F, Widerlöv E (1988). “Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): An overview of central actions and possible relationship to psychiatric illnesses”. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry42 (2): 111–117. doi:10.3109/08039488809103215.
  33. ^ Shi X, Shi W, Li Q, Song B, Wan M, Bai S (2003). “A glucocorticoid-induced leucine-zipper protein, GILZ, inhibits adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells”EMBO Reports4 (4): 374–380. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.embor805PMC 1319161PMID 12671681.
  34. ^ Stanojilovic OP, Zivanovic DP, Su Sic VT (2002). “The effects of Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide on incidence and severity in metaphit-induced epilepsy in rats”. Pharmacological Research45 (3): 241–247. doi:10.1006/phrs.2001.0938PMID 11884222.
  35. ^ Stanojlović O, Zivanović D, Mirković S, Mikhaleva I (February 2004). “Delta sleep-inducing peptide and its tetrapeptide analogue alleviate severity of metaphit seizures”. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav77 (2): 227–34. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2003.10.014PMID 14751449.
  36. ^ Nakamura A, Nakashima M, Sugao T, Kanemoto H, Fukumura Y, Shiomi H (1988). “Potent antinociceptive effect of centrally administered delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP)”. Eur J Pharmacol155 (3): 247–53. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(88)90510-9PMID 2853064.
  37. ^ Pomfrett CJ, Dolling S, Anders NR, Glover DG, Bryan A, Pollard BJ (2009). “Delta sleep-inducing peptide alters bispectral index, the electroencephalogram and heart rate variability when used as an adjunct to isoflurane anaesthesia”. Eur J Anaesthesiol26 (2): 128–34. doi:10.1097/EJA.0b013e32831c8644PMID 19142086.
  38. ^ Friedman TC, García-Borreguero D, Hardwick D, Akuete CN, Doppman JL, Dorn LD, Barker CN, Yanovski JA, Chrousos GP (December 1994). “Decreased delta-sleep and plasma delta-sleep-inducing peptide in patients with Cushing syndrome”Neuroendocrinology60 (6): 626–34. doi:10.1159/000126806PMID 7700506.
  39. ^ Torreilles F, Touchon J (2002). “Pathogenic theories and intrathecal analysis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer’s disease”. Progress in Neurobiology66 (3): 191–203. doi:10.1016/S0301-0082(01)00030-2PMID 11943451.
  40. ^ Sinyukhin AB, Timoshinov GP, Komilov VA, Shabanov PD (2009). “Delta sleep-inducing peptide analogue corrects the eNS functional state of children treated with antiblastomic therapy”. European Neuropsychopharmacology19: S681–S682. doi:10.1016/S0924-977X(09)71101-0.
  41. ^ Soyka M, Rothenhaeusler H (1997). “Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide Opioid Detoxification”. Am. J. Psychiatry154 (5): 714–715. PMID 9137140.
  42. ^ Yukhananov RY, Tennila TM, Miroshnichenko II, Kudrina VS, Ushakov AN, Melnik EI (1992). “Ethanol and Delta Sleep Inducing Peptide effects on brain monoamines”. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav43 (3): 683–687. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(92)90396-W.
  43. ^ Backmund M, Meyer K, Rothenhaeusler HB, Soyka M (1998). “Opioid detoxification with delta sleep-inducing peptide: results of an open clinical trial”. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol18 (3): 257–258. doi:10.1097/00004714-199806000-00016PMID 9617990.
  44. ^ Schneider-Helmert D (1986). “DSIP in Sleep Disturbances”. Eur Neurol25(2): 154–157. doi:10.1159/000116097PMID 3758119.
  45. ^ Schneider-Helmert D, Schoenenberger GA (1981). “The influence of synthetic DSIP (delta-sleep-inducing-peptide) on disturbed human sleep”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences37 (9): 913–917. doi:10.1007/BF01971753.

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